1. SITTING ROOM, JULES RENAN'S HOUSE
(Ian, Barbara and Jules are waiting for the Doctor to arrive at the house. They hear a noise at the outside door.)
IAN: Here they are.
(He looks as the door from the hall opens. In walks the Doctor, still in his official uniform; behind him is the tall figure of Lemaitre!)
JULES: Your friend has betrayed us!
PRISONERS OF THE CONCIERGERIE
IAN: (to the Doctor) You brought the soldiers!
LEMAITRE: No, I came alone and unarmed. Ask your friend.
DOCTOR: We came alone, my boy. We made a bargain. Let him speak. He holds Susan prisoner.
JULES: (to Lemaitre) What can you have to say to us?
LEMAITRE: Please! I come as a friend.
BARBARA: (incredulously) A friend?
LEMAITRE: Ian will tell you that what I say is true.
IAN: I will?
LEMAITRE: Well, surely you realise that your escape from prison was arranged? I saw to it that you got the key and I took care of the jailer.
IAN: Why? Why should you do that?
LEMAITRE: I was certain in my own mind that Webster gave you a message to deliver. You had to have the opportunity to deliver it. Unfortunately, I don't have enough time to wait now. I have to collect.
LEMAITRE: Yes. I am James Stirling.
IAN: Stirling? You?
STIRLING: Is it so surprising? You must have already decided that to be of any use I would have to hold some position of authority.
JULES: Why have you not made yourself known here before? Webster had been told about me.
STIRLING: I've been in France several years. When I came over you must have been unknown to us, although I'm not sure I would have contacted you even if I could. I prefer to work alone.
IAN: You could have made yourself known to me in prison.
STIRLING: Yes, but I didn't know whether I could trust you. There again, I could have been overheard. No Ian, I took the only course possible.
DOCTOR: That's all very well, Lemaitre, Stirling, or whatever your name is, but the only reason I brought you here was to help Susan. And I've kept my part of the bargain.
STIRLING: I know, but let me explain my position...
DOCTOR: I certainly will not! I want my granddaughter out of that prison!
STIRLING: She already has been out of that prison and she was rearrested. (to everyone) I will help you if you will help me. Don't you see? I can use my authority to get safe passage for all of you to whever you want to go.
DOCTOR: But look here...
IAN: He's right, Doctor.
STIRLING: No harm will come to Susan, I promise. I gave orders that she was to remain in the cell. Now you know that's true. The jailer would die rather than see that cell door opened again.
DOCTOR: Very well. Very well. If you must, t... tell your story then get on with it.
(The Doctor moves to the other side of the room.)
STIRLING: (to Ian) First the message.
IAN: Oh, Webster said very little. He was badly wounded as you know.
STIRLING: Yes. I know that. I read reports of all arrests in case something like this happens. It's why I came to your cell, I realised that he could have been Webster. I've been expecting to be contacted for months.
IAN: ...know where you were, or even where I could find you.
STIRLING: No. The plan was that he was to look for and recognise me. He was a good friend. Ian, the message?
IAN: He said you were to return to England immediately. It seems that whatever information you have is wanted there urgently.
STIRLING: Nothing more?
IAN: That was all Webster said.
STIRLING: Are you sure?
IAN: Well, he mumbled occasionally. Odd words. But, what I've just told you was all he asked me to tell you.
STIRLING: What were these numblings about?
IAN: Oh, well, they didn't really make sense. He was unconscious. He said, ah... strange things. I can't really remember now.
STIRLING: He may have realised that he didn't have very much time.
IAN: (thoughtfully) Yes. I'm afraid I can't remember them.
STIRLING: Well, I'm already planning my return to England. But, before I go, and before I can give Susan and you safe passage, there is one more piece of information I must have.
BARBARA: But, you asked for our help. What can we do? You have all the power.
STIRLING: Robespierre sent for me today. There is another plot to depose him.
JULES: Good. Will it succeed, do you think?
STIRLING: Possibly. He gave orders that I should follow Paul Barrass, a deputy, and report back on a meeting...
IAN: Barrass! Meeting!Webster did speak of that.
STIRLING: What did he say?
IAN: Well, nothing specific but he said Barrass, meeting, and something about a sinking ship. (pause) No. No, The Sinking Ship.That was it!
JULES: Just a moment. There's an inn called the Sinking Ship on the Calais Road. It would be ideal for a secret meeting.
STIRLING: Right. Better than following him, we can plan a reception commitee. If I can discover the results of this meeting, I'm ready to return to England and I'm free to help you.
BARBARA: Have you any idea who Barrass is meeting?
STIRLING: No, but whoever he is, he could be the next ruler of France.
IAN: I still don't understand why you need our help.
STIRLING: Barrass knows me by sight, I'm sure of that. (to the Doctor) He could even know of you, Doctor.
(The Doctor rejoins the conversation.)
STIRLING: Now my plan, if you agree, is for Barbara and Ian to attend the meeting.
DOCTOR: Nonsense! It's far too risky.
JULES: Why not use your own men? You would still learn the details.
STIRLING: True but then they would also know and they may talk. Then I have no advantage.
BARBARA: I think we should go. Ian?
IAN: It's risky. But, we're not going to get away without help.
DOCTOR: Quite so, and there's Susan to think about.
STIRLING: Then you agree to go?
IAN: We agree.
STIRLING: The Doctor and I will remain here. If we're seen it could hinder you, or worse.
JULES: I'll take them to the inn, Stirling, if you've no objection.
STIRLING: Good. I was going to ask you to. Now, when you get there I suggest that the innkeeper...
JULES: You can leave it to us, Stirling.
STIRLING: Sorry. I know I can. (to Ian and Barbara) You should have little difficulty getting there tonight. Stay the night and return here tomorrow morning. That way you won't run into any patrols. Now, where exactly is this inn, Jules?
(Jules points on a map he has put on the table.)
JULES: It's a good two hours ride. We'll take the Calais road and ride due north. When we reach this fork we'll see a forest. We'll circle it and ride west.
(Later that night the moon disappears behind some clouds. Lightning flickers and rain begins to pour.)
3. CALAIS ROAD
(A sign on a building depicting a sinking ship is being blown around in the gale.)
4. BAR ROOM
(Jules is sitting at a table smoking a pipe. Barbara comes up to him disguised as a waitress and gives him a bottle.)
JULES: (loudly) Thank you.
(They then have a quieter conversation.)
BARBARA: Well, if this is a typical night's trade, I'm not surprised this place was chosen.
JULES: Hmm. I've bound and gagged the innkeeper and left him in the wine cellar. He'll be found when we leave.
BARBARA: Ian's nearly finished.
BARBARA: You know, if Barrass doesn't arrive soon, he'll find the place closed.
JULES: Perhaps that's what he's waiting for.
(Barbara goes and collects the empty mugs from another table and retreats to behind the bar. She hears a noise from the shelves with the bottles on and, after examining them, goes through a door.)
5. ROOM BEHIND THE BAR
(She emerges in a room. There is no wall where the shelves are and so they can be accessed here as well. Ian is fiddling with the bottles, trying to make a spyhole.)
BARBARA: You're through.
IAN: Yes, I know. That'll do it. Many out there?
BARBARA: Just two. They look set for the night. And Jules of course. He's put the innkeeper in the cellar.
(Ian examines his handiwork.)
IAN: Good. Yes, looks all right. Aye. Now we're ready for them.
(Ian goes through into the main room.)
6. BAR ROOM
(Barbara joins him and they both resume normal jobs by the counter. Soon, the door to the inn opens and a man enters from the gale outside. Ian advances forwards, still in character.)
IAN: Ah, let me take your cloak, citizen? Horrible night. Ah.
(The man, Barrass, allows Ian to remove it.)
BARRASS: Where is Jacques?
IAN: Ah, Jacques? Oh, he's sick. He asked me to help him out. You must be the citizen who ordered the room. This way. This way citizen.
(He leads Barrass over to the door to the other room.)
IAN: Here we are.
(Barras goes through.)
7. ROOM BEHIND THE BAR
(Barrass examines his surroundings. Barbara enters.)
BARBARA: Can... can I get you anything, citizen?
BARRASS: Ah, yes. Some wine.
BARBARA: How many guests are you expecting?
BARRASS: Just the one.
(Barbara bows and departs.)
8. BAR ROOM
(She rejoins Ian at the bar.)
BARBARA: There'll only be two of them.
(They prepare a tray with a bottle of wine and two glasses which Barbara duly carries through. The only other two inhabitants of the inn, apart from Jules stand up.)
(They open the door and step out into the storm. Ian nods to Jules and he also goes. Barbara returns.)
IAN: As soon as his guest comes you can lock up.
(Barbara nods and begins to wipe the table of the recently departed visitors. Barrass emerges from his room and, a few seconds later another man, his face obscured by a scarf, enters. Barrass smiles and lets him through.)
BARBARA: Did you see who it was?
IAN: No. Did you?
9. ROOM BEHIND THE BAR
(The man stands in full uniform by the window.)
BARRASS: Well, I'm delighted you could get here, general.
(Without a word his associate opens the door to the bar room again.)
10. BAR ROOM
(He looks around and sees Ian and Barbara at their tasks. Satisfied he closes the door. Ian waves Barbara over.)
IAN: (whispering) Barbara. Barbara. It's Napoleon. Napoleon Bonaparte!
11. ROOM BEHIND THE BAR
(Napoleon sits down heavily at the table.)
BARRASS: We're quite safe here. I made certain I wasn't followed.
NAPOLEON: The meeting place was well chosen.
(Barrass pours a glass of wine.)
BARRASS: I, um... assume from your presence here that you're interested in my proposition.
NAPOLEON: Interested, obviously. But, no more. At least, not until you disclose the full details.
BARRASS: Robespierre will be arrested after tomorrow's convention meeting.
NAPOLEON: Will be? It won't be the first attempt.
BARRASS: But it will be the successful one. He'll be tried and executed before his friends have time to reorganise.
NAPOLEON: You make it sound simple, Barrass. I think you underestimate Robespierre. He has a talent for commanding support.
BARRASS: Only if he is allowed to speak. And he won't be able to.
NAPOLEON: As far as I'm concerned, your success or failure means very little to me.
BARRASS: Oh, possibly. But, only for the immediate future. Success could well mean that I would take control of the governing commitee.
NAPOLEON: It would be within the constitutional rights?
BARRASS: And then the constitution could be ammended. Oh, I'm well aware of your disgust for politians, tearing France to pieces while her enemies wait to pound us.
NAPOLEON: Exactly what is your proposal?
BARRASS: I believe that to rule a country successfully, one needs a certain support from the people being governed.
NAPOLEON: Agreed. And how do you plan to raise that support?
BARRASS: With you. Your victories, inspiring victories, in the Austrian Wars have made you a public figure. You're a hero in the people's eyes.
NAPOLEON: And in your eyes? A useful prop for your new government.
BARRASS: (chuckling) No. Come general. You would be more than just a figurehead.
NAPOLEON: Yes. I know I would. I'm glad you appreciate it. Which capacity...
12. BAR ROOM
(Ian and Barbara are eavesdropping through the spyhole.)
NAPOLEON: ...would you require me to serve?
13. ROOM BEHIND THE BAR
BARRAS: The constitution ammendment would call for a government of three consuls. You would be one of them.
NAPOLEON: When would you require my decision?
14. BAR ROOM
15. ROOM BEHIND THE BAR
NAPOLEON: If I refuse?
BARRASS: You're in a strong position, Bonaparte, but hardly indispensible. There are other young men equally ambitious.
NAPOLEON: I accept, dependent on Robespierre's downfall. In the event of failure, I shall of course deny this meeting ever took place.
BARRASS: I will summon you to Paris as soon as a suitable time has elapsed.
NAPOLEON: I shall be ready to take over.
16. SITTING ROOM, JULES RENAN'S HOUSE
(The five are back togther. Ian and Barbara are telling their story.)
STIRLING: (alarmed) Napoleon? Napoleon as ruler of France?
BARBARA: Yes. As one of three consuls.
STIRLING: He won't be content with that. I've watched his promotions. Bonaparte's clever and ambitious. If he gets a foothold to power, one day he will rule France.
DOCTOR: Our only concern now is Susan.
STIRLING: She's only part of it, Doctor. If they take Robespierre to the prison we might find it hard to get in there, let alone get out.
IAN: You made a bargain with us.
STIRLING: And I'll keep to it.
IAN: You knew this might happen.
STIRLING: Yes. But, I had no idea Barrass was so strong. Jules. What time is this convention meeting?
JULES: It will be over by now.
STIRLING: Then Robespierre could already be under arrest. I must find out. There may still be time.
BARBARA: You'd keep Robespierre as ruler of France.
STIRLING: If I thought it was the only way...
JULES: We need a strong government, but not a military dictatorship. And it could happen.
BARBARA: It will happen!
DOCTOR: Oh, save your breath, my dear. (to Stirling and Jules) Do as you think fit. I'm going off for Susan.
STIRLING: Take Barbara with you. Let her hide outside the prison. Jules?
STIRLING: Get a carriage. Take her to the prison. If there are crowds, wait until they disperse, Barbara will watch out for you.
(Jules goes out.)
STIRLING: (to the Doctor) If you can get Susan, take her and join Barbara and wait for the carriage. Ian and myself will join you as soon as we can.
IAN: And where shall we go?
STIRLING: To the palace. We'll get news of Robespierre. If you're not outside the prison when we return I'll come for you.
(Ian looks indecisive.)
DOCTOR: Go with him, my boy. You can't help me but at least you can make sure that he helps us.
IAN: All right. I'll see you outside the prison. Good luck.
BARBARA: Take care, Ian!
(Ian and Stirling depart. Barbara begins to laugh.)
DOCTOR: What is it? What do you find so amusing, hmm?
BARBARA: Oh, I don't know. Yes, I do. It's this feverish activity to try and stop something that we know is going to happen. Robespierre will be guillotined whatever we do!
DOCTOR: (gravely) I've told you of our position so often.
BARBARA: Yes, I know. You can't influence or change history. I learnt that lesson with the Aztecs.
DOCTOR: The events will happen, just as they are written. I'm afraid so and we can't stem the tide. But at least we can stop being carried away with the flood! Now, Susan and the prison.
(They too leave.)
17. OFFICE OF ROBESPIERRE
(Robespierre bursts in, locks the double doors behind him and leans heavily on them. He then goes over to his desk and begins to sort through the papers on it. He pulls a gun out of a drawer and advances back to the door, unlocking it.)
18. OUTSIDE THE OFFICE OF ROBESPIERRE
(A crowd of soldiers is gathering here, many of its members armed, and is trying to open the doors.)
_____: _____ him.
_____: Come out! Do you hear?
_____: _____ break it down.
(They succeed and swarm into the room.)
19. OFFICE OF ROBESPIERRE
(Two of them grab Robespierre and hold him.)
SOLDIER: _____ citizen. Issued by the governing commitee!
(Robespierre loudly tries to rally support.)
ROBESPIERRE: Oh, don't be fools, citizens! They're traitors. All of them. Traitors! Don't be fools, they're just using you. They'll never succeed in taking over the government of France! They'll never succeed! Within hours I shall be as powerful as ever I was and the traitors will pay with their lives.
20. OUTSIDE THE OFFICE OF ROBESPIERRE
(Ian and Stirling cautiously approach. Stirling is about to enter but Ian holds him back. Robespierre is still speaking.)
ROBESPIERRE: If, citizens, you swear your alleigence to me now, I will promise your safety. I promise to save France. I will promise...!
(A loud gunshot rings out and the voice is silent.)
SOLDIER: (from inside the office) Ha! That'll keep you quiet for a while _____. Come on! _____.
(Robespierre is dragged from the prison, clutching his mouth in anguish. The rest of the crowd follows, leaving only Ian and Stirling.)
STIRLING: You should have let me go in, Ian.
IAN: No, Stirling. Robespierre's finished. We were too late.
STIRLING: Yes. Did you hear the men? They're taking him to the prison.
IAN: Yes. It's up to the Doctor now.
(It is still cloudy.)
22. STREET NEAR THE CONCIERGERIE PRISON
(The Doctor and Barbara are standing beneath an overhanging building.The faint rumblings of thunder can be heard.)
DOCTOR: I think we're going to have quite a storm.
BARBARA: Yes. We were lucky to find shelter so near the prison.
DOCTOR: Hmm. We've waited around here long enough. Far too conspicuous. I think the carriage might be here when I return. Will you be all right?
BARBARA: Yes, of course.
DOCTOR: I think I'll go and get Susan. Or, at least, try. Be careful.
(He hurries off.)
23. CORRIDOR OUTSIDE THE CELLS, CONCIERGERIE PRISON
(The jailer is at his table, drinking with two soldiers. The Doctor, who is still in his outfit, comes and stands opposite him.)
JAILER: Up with the Revolution. (to the DOCTOR) You! You came back!
DOCTOR: I can see you did not expect me.
JAILER: No. But I am glad you came. I still have a score to settle with you.
DOCTOR: Really? I see you haven't heard the n... the news yet, my man.
(The jailer points to the soldiers.)
JAILER: Who hasn't? Robespierre has been overthrown!
(The soldiers grunt in agreement.)
DOCTOR: Yes. And Lemaitre was shot trying to run away.
JAILER: (shocked) Lemaitre, shot?
DOCTOR: Shot. And now we're going to deal with his accomplices.
JAILER: (suspicious) Who are you?
DOCTOR: Why do you think a high-ranking official like myself came to Paris, hmm? I was part of the plan. I came to make sure of Robespierre's downfall.
JAILER: (humbled) I didn't know, citizen.
DOCTOR: No. You didn't, did you? And that is why you didn't expect me to come back. You thought you'll get away with it!
JAILER: Get away with what?
DOCTOR: Being Lemaitre's accomplice. Take him!
(The two soldiers grab the jailer.)
DOCTOR: You were Lemaitre's accomplice, weren't you? You did help him to carry out his torturous actions?
JAILER: I only carried out the orders I was given, sir.
DOCTOR: Orders? Orders? Don't tell me that, my man, I was there, remember? I saw you coniving with him all the time.
JAILER: I didn't, citizen.
DOCTOR: Didn't what?
JAILER: Do what you just said!
DOCTOR: It was you that betrayed me to Lemaitre, was it not?
JAILER: Well, after all, citizen, you did hit me on the head. And how was I to know Lemaitre was a traitor? And... Well, you citizen... You... Well, that was a secret wasn't it?
DOCTOR: (considering) Well, I suppose there's some logic in that. I can't decide whether you're a rogue or a half-wit or both. Huh. However, I will give you the benfit of the doubt. (to the soldiers) Get out.
(The soldiers let go of the jailer.)
DOCTOR: (to the jailer) Now, while we'll... we're reconsidering the post of jailer you may stay here in a temporary capacity.
JAILER: (pleased) Thank you, citizen. You won't regret it. I promise you!
DOCTOR: I hope not. Now, Robespierre's friends smuggled him away after the convention. The soldiers are after him. He will be caught and probably brought here.
JAILER: Ah, well we'll look after him, citizen.Never fear.
DOCTOR: Tomorrow there will be a new bunch of prisoners, Robespierre's friends, so I hope everything will be ready, including the cells?
JAILER: Well... Ah, shall I release the prisoners, citizen?
DOCTOR: Certainly. Now let me have the key to the dungeon.
(The jailer pulls a key off his ring and hands it to the Doctor.)
24. STREET NEAR THE CONCIERGERIE PRISON
(Barbara is standing in the shelter, looking on in horror. There are the sounds of a riot nearby. She is joined by Ian and Stirling.)
_____: They've got Robespierre!
IAN: The Doctor back yet?
BARBARA: No. But, they've got Robespierre! I've just seen them take him into the prison!
STIRLING: Yes, we followed them here. Perhaps I'd better go and see what's happened.
IAN: You stay where you are, Stirling. You set one foot inside that prison and you'd be arrested. We must wait until Jules arrives with the carriage.
BARBARA: And you obviously didn't get to Robespierre.
STIRLING: We saw him taken. He was shot in the jaw.
IAN: Jules going to be able to see us from here?
BARBARA: I think so. At least this storm will allow him to pull up in front of the prison.
STIRLING: I shall be heading for Calais. I can get a boat from there.
IAN: Good. We can save you some time. We go the same way.
STIRLING: And while you're waiting, you might as well explain exactly where it is you're making for.
BARBARA: Well, as far as I can remember from the map I saw in the hideout, we head north of Paris...
(Ian points forwards in excitement at the sound of horses.)
IAN: Here's Jules!
25. CORRIDOR OUTSIDE THE CELLS, CONCIERGERIE PRISON
(The Doctor unlocks the door to one of the cells and Susan tumbles out.)
SUSAN: Oh, grandfather!
DOCTOR: Ah. There, Susan. We're all going back to the ship. It's all over for you. Eh. Eh.
(Susan breaks away.)
SUSAN: Where are the others?
DOCTOR: Well, Barbara's outside and Ian should arrive at any moment. We have a carriage waiting.
SUSAN: (relieved) A carriage! Oh, that's better than _____.
DOCTOR: Yes. I... Eh. Oh.
(The sounds of the riot become louder.)
SUSAN: Well, what's happening?
DOCTOR: They've just heard about the downfall of Robespierre. A sort... a sort of celebration, you know?
SUSAN: Oh, look!
(The crowd drags Robespierre, still clutching his jaw, down the steps to the jailer who is seated at his table.)
JAILER: Yes. What is it about?
SOLDIER:A prisoner for you.
JAILER: (mocking) Oh, citizen Robespierre?
(He takes off his hat and bows.)
JAILER: This is indeed an honour.
SOLDIER: Ah, don't waste your breath on him. He can't answer you back. He tried writing us a letter but, ah... too bad we don't read, ay?
(The soldiers laugh and the jailer leads them all off down the corridor. The Doctor and Susan slip by onobtrusively.)
SUSAN: Let's go back to the TARDIS.
DOCTOR: Yes. Yes, Susan. The rabble are far too busy to bother about us. Everybody lived in fear, yesterday, of that man, and today...? Let's go, Susan. Let's go.
26. STREET NEAR THE CONCIERGERIE PRISON
(Ian is talking to Jules, Barbara to Stirling.)
JULES: Yes, the fall of Robespierre has changed everything for me.
IAN: I'm sure it has, Jules. What are you going to do now?
JULES: First I must find Jean. Then I shall wait somewhere in the country and see how this situation in Paris develops.
IAN: Going to be disturbed for a long time, I think.
JULES: Yes, I know. I wonder who will emerge as the next ruler of France?
IAN: Remember the name, Napoleon Bonaparte.
JULES: Corsican? Ruling France?
(Barbara and Stirling become the focus of attention.)
STIRLING: Well, if you're certain that's where you want to be left.
BARBARA: _____. We'll be safe there.
STIRLING: Yes, but I don't...
BARBARA: Please. No questions. Promise?
STIRLING: Very well, if that's what you want. Now that I'm going home, I just can't wait to see England again.
BARBARA: Oh, England. I know how you feel only too well.
STIRLING: Why don't you all come with me?
BARBARA: Ah, no. We must travel our way.
STIRLING: Barbara. Who are you really? Where do you all come from?
(Before she can answer they are interrupted.)
JULES: Here they are!
IAN: He's got Susan!
(The Doctor and Susan join them.)
(They all head off towards the waiting carriage. Jules notices Stirling lagging behind.)
DOCTOR: Now come along. Don't stand around. It's dangerous.
IAN: Come along. Hurry.
JULES: Come Lemaitre. We mustn't keep them waiting. I hope they have a pleasant journey.
STIRLING: So do I. But to where, Jules? Funny. I get the impression they don't know where they're heading for. Come to that, do any of us?
(He smiles and they too go to join the carriage.)
(It is now light again.)
28. MAP OF PARIS AND ENVIRONS
(Superimposed over this we see the carriage being drawn along various roads.)
(The TARDIS sits here as it was before.)
30. TARDIS CONSOLE ROOM
(The Doctor is sitting on a chair taking his heavy uniform off and at the same time talking to Susan, Ian and Barbara.)
DOCTOR: Well, I can assure you, my dear Barbara, Napoleon would never have believed you.
IAN: Yes, Doctor, but ah, supposing we had written Napoleon a letter, telling him, you know, some of the things that were going to happen to him.
SUSAN: It wouldn't have made any difference, Ian. He would have forgotten it, or lost it, or thought it was written by a maniac.
BARBARA: (wryly) I suppose if we'd tried to kill him with a gun, the bullet would have missed him.
DOCTOR: Well, it's hardly fair to speculate, is it? No, I'm afraid you belittle things.
(Over a starscape, their voices can still be heard.)
DOCTOR: Our lives are important, at least to us. But as we see, so we learn.
IAN: And what are we going to see and learn next, Doctor?
DOCTOR: Well, unlike the old adage, my boy, our destiny is in the stars, so let's go and search for it.
PLANET OF GIANTS
CAROLE ANN FORD
Title music by
and the BBC
Costumes Supervised by
Make-up Supervised by